One Brookings Drive
Washington University School of Law
St. Louis, MO 63130


Washington University in St. Louis
Sally D. Danforth Distinguished Professor of Law and Religion (2016-present)
(joint appointment in law school and John C. Danforth Center on Religion and Politics)
Professor of Political Science (by courtesy) (2016-present)

Associate Professor of Law (2011-16)
Associate Professor of Political Science (by courtesy) (2011-16)
John C. Danforth Center on Religion and Politics (affiliate faculty) (2014-16)

David M. Becker Law School Professor of the Year (2013-14)

University of Virginia
Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture
Senior Fellow (2016-17)
Residential Faculty Fellow (2014-15)

Duke University School of Law
Visiting Assistant Professor of Law (2010-11)
Fellow, Program in Public Law (2009-10)


Ellis & Winters, LLP
Special Counsel (2009)

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Teaching Fellow (2006-08)

Judge Roger L. Wollman
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit

Law Clerk (2004-05)

Office of the Air Force General Counsel (National Security & Military Affairs)
Associate General Counsel (2003-04)

Office of the Air Force General Counsel (Acquisition)
Associate General Counsel (2000-03)
Chief, Bid Protests (2002-03)


University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Ph.D. (Political Science) (2009)
Fields: Political Theory and Public Law
Caroline H. and Thomas S. Royster, Jr. Multiyear Fellowship

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, M.A. (Political Science) (2007)

Duke University School of Law, J.D. (2000)

Duke University, B.S.E. (Civil Engineering) (1997)


Liberty’s Refuge: The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly (Yale University Press, 2012)

  • reviewed in Texas Law Review, Washington University Law Review, The New Republic, First Things, Engage, Journal of Legal Education, and others

Confident Pluralism: Surviving and Thriving Through Deep Difference (University of Chicago Press, 2016)

  • reviewed in Washington Post, First Things, Commentary, Chicago Law Review and others

  • paperback edition with new preface (University of Chicago Press, 2018)


Uncommon Ground: Faithfully in a World of Difference (with Timothy Keller) (Thomas Nelson, forthcoming 2020)

Theological Argument in Law: Engaging with Stanley Hauerwas, 75 Law & Contemp. Probs., no. 4, 2012


“Hope without a Common Good,” in Eboo Patel, Out of Many Faiths: Religious Diversity and the American Promise (Princeton University Press, 2018)


Holmes, Humility, and How Not to Kill Each Other, 94 Notre Dame L. Rev. 1631 (2019)

The Purpose (and Limits) of the University, 5 Utah L. Rev. 943 (2018)

Peyote and Ghouls in the Night: Justice Scalia’s Religion Clause Minimalism15 First Amend. L. Rev. 239 (2017)

Unlawful Assembly as Social Control64 UCLA L. Rev. 2 (2017)

Re-Assembling Labor2015 Ill. L. Rev. 1791 (2015) (with Marion Crain)

A Confident Pluralism, 88 S. Cal. L. Rev. 587 (2015)

The First Amendment’s Public Forum, 56 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1159 (2015)

More is More: Strengthening Free Exercise, Speech, and Association, 99 Minn. L. Rev. 485 (2014)

  • selected for reprint in 2014-15 First Amendment Handbook

The Four Freedoms and the Future of Religious Liberty92 N.C. L. Rev. 787 (2014)

  • response by Nelson Tebbe, 92 N.C. L. Rev. 917 (2014)

The Freedom of the Church (New Revised Standard Version), 21 J. Contemp. Legal Issues 335 (2013)

Virtual Assembly, 98 Cornell L. Rev. 1093 (2013)

Stanley Hauerwas & the Law: Is There Anything to Say?, 75 Law & Contemp. Probs., no. 4, i (2012)

The Limits of Integrity, 75 Law & Contemp. Probs., no. 4, 181 (2012)

Factions for the Rest of Us, 89 Wash. U. L. Rev. 1435 (2012)

Justice Ginsburg and Religious Liberty, 63 Hastings L.J. 1213 (2012)

Between Liberalism and Theocracy, 33 Camp. L. Rev. 591 (2011)

The Unsettling “Well-Settled” Law of Freedom of Association, 43 Conn. L. Rev. 149 (2010)

The Forgotten Freedom of Assembly, 84 Tul. L. Rev. 565 (2010)

The Strange Origins of the Constitutional Right of Association, 77 Tenn. L. Rev. 485 (2010)

Making Sense of Schaumburg: Seeking Coherence in First Amendment Charitable Solicitation Law, 92 Marq. L. Rev. 551 (2009)

No Future Without (Personal) Forgiveness: Reexamining the Role of Forgiveness in Transitional Justice, 10 Hum. Rts. Rev. 309 (2009)

Boeing v. Roche and the Benefit Theory of Allocability: Unlocking Lockheed or Ignoring Northrop?, 32 Pub. Cont. L.J. 39 (2002)


McCullen v. CoakleyBrief Amicus Curiae of the National Hispanic Christian Leadership Conference, et al., in Support of Petitioner Eleanor McCullen (with Michael McConnell)

“Peaceful Coexistence?  Reconciling Non-discrimination Principles with Civil Liberties,” Briefing to United States Commission on Civil Rights (March 22, 2013)

Christian Legal Society v. MartinezBrief Amicus Curiae of the Pacific Justice Institute and Christian Service Charities in Support of Petitioner Christian Legal Society (with Peter Lepiscopo)


“Searching for Safe Spaces,” Inside Higher Ed (with Ashutosh Bhagwat) (March 21, 2017)

“How to United in Spite of Trump,” USA Today (December 22, 2016)

“We Disagree on the ‘Self-Evident Truths’ in the Declaration of Independence. But We Always Did,” Washington Post (July 5, 2016)

“Rehabilitating Freedom of Assembly,” USA Today (January 10, 2016)

“Do Black Lives Matter to Evangelicals?” Washington Post (January 6, 2016)

“The Japanese-American Internment Decision: A Dangerous Relic,” Los Angeles Times (with Karen Tani) (December 18, 2015)

“America’s Dividing Line: Thoughts, Prayers, and Belief in a Transcendent God,” CNN (December 4, 2015)

“Want a Vibrant Public Square?  Support Religious Tax Exemptions,” Washington Post (September 16, 2015)

“Are We Ferguson?” CNN (August 21, 2014)

“Contraception Fight Not Just a ‘Catholic Thing,'” USA Today (August 20, 2012)


“Why I’m Still Confident About Confident Pluralism, Christianity Today (August 13, 2018)

“Law, Religion, and the Purpose of the University,” 94 Wash. U. L. Rev. 1493 (2017) (edited version of remarks delivered at installation into Sally D. Danforth Professorship)

“Princeton Seminary, Presbyterian Pastors, and Purpose,” Hedgehog Review Blog (March 28, 2017)

“Christian Witness in an Anxious Age,” Christianity Today (June 20, 2016) (with Timothy Keller)

“Confident Pluralism, Expressive Association, and ‘Tone,'” Prawfsblawg (June 7, 2016) (response to Mark Tushnet)

“Confident Pluralism: A Response,” First Things (May 31, 2016) (Response to Carl Trueman)

“Which Religious-Liberty Protections Mean Something? A Question for Jonathan Merritt,”Hedgehog Review Blog (April 29, 2016)

“The Christian Witness to the State: Nicolas Wolterstorff on John Howard Yoder,” J.L. & Relig. (2015)

“Across the Great Divides: Why America Needs a More Confident Pluralism,” Hedgehog Review (Fall 2015)

“The Rights of Assembly and Petition,” National Constitution Center (2015) (with Burt Neuborne)

“How to Protect Religious Groups You Admire,” Christianity Today (August 4, 2015) (with Michael McConnell and Richard Garnett)

“Hope in Ferguson,” Wash U. Voices (August 3, 2015)

“The Incomprehensible Witness of Forgiveness,” Hedgehog Review Blog (June 25, 2015)

“Institutions in Context,” 50 Tul. L. Rev. 491 (2015) (solicited review of Paul Horwitz’s First Amendment Institutions)

What to Expect After the Supreme Court’s Marriage Decision,” Christianity Today (April 28, 2015)

“Pluralism Doesn’t Mean Relativism,” Christianity Today (April 6, 2015)

“Is Religious Freedom Imperiled?” Hedgehog Review Blog (March 20, 2015)

“What is Truth in Ferguson and New York City?” Hedgehog Review Blog (December 17, 2014)

“Protests, Assembly, and the Public Forum,” Yale Books Unbound (December 12, 2014)

“Law and Violence,” Hedgehog Review Blog (November 26, 2014)

“5 Guidelines for Living in a Pluralist Society,” Christianity Today (October 10, 2014)

“Virtual Assembly and the Legal Limits of Digital Dualism” The Infernal Machine (September 24, 2014)

“The Perverse Effects of the ‘All Comers’ Requirement,” Liberty Law Blog (September 15, 2014)

“The Right of Assembly Violently Wrested,” Hedgehog Review Blog (September 11, 2014)

“Let’s Talk About Race,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch (August 14, 2014)

“Freedom of the Church Not Freedom of Religion,” Liberty Law Online Forum (August 7, 2014)

“Religious Freedom vs. LGBT Rights?  It’s More Complicated,” Christianity Today (July 16, 2014)

“The First Amendment Decision Nobody’s Talking About,” Christianity Today (July 1, 2014) (discussing McCullen v. Coakley and Hobby Lobby)

“Advocacy and Association,” 2013 Utah L. Rev. OnLaw 1

“The Right of Assembly” in Heritage Guide to the Constitution (David Forte, ed. 2012)

“The Works of Robert Cover,” Journal of Christian Legal Thought (Spring 2011)

“Siding With Sameness,” Raleigh News & Observer (July 1, 2010)


“Confident Pluralism in Philanthropy”
Center for Effective Philanthropy (2019)

“Confident Pluralism”
Missouri Humanities Council (2019)

“The Importance of Religious Pluralism” (with Eboo Patel)
Sarah Lawrence College (2019)

“Confident Pluralism”
Independent Schools Association of the Central States (ISACS) (2019)

“Confidence and Compassion”
Urbana Student Missions Conference (2018)

“Holmes, Humility, and How Not to Kill Each Other”
University of Notre Dame (2018)

“Barnette and the Four Freedoms”
Florida International University (2018)

“Out of Many Faiths” (with Eboo Patel, Nancy Cable, Robert Jones, and Laurie Patton)
Art Institute of Chicago (2018)

“Confident Pluralism”
Res Publica Lectures
Covenant College (2018)

“Confident Pluralism”
January Series
Calvin College (2018)

“E Pluribus Unum? Bridging Divides in this American Moment” (with Eboo Patel)
Interfaith Youth Core (2017)

“The First Amendment and the University”
University of San Diego School of Law (2017)

“Confident Pluralism”
Renmin University (Beijing) (2017)

“Contemporary Challenges in Law and Religion”
Zhejiang University (Hangzhou) (2017)

“Going Forward” (Commencement Address)
Houghton College (2017)

“The First Amendment and the University”
University of Kentucky School of Law (2017)

“Confident Pluralism”
Duke Law School (Alumni Author Speaker) (2017)

“Confident Pluralism”
Fordham Law School (2017)

“Confident Pluralism and the University” (with Stanley Hauerwas and Larycia Hawkins)
University of Virginia (2016)

“Confident Pluralism”
Stanford Law School (2016)

“Confident Pluralism”
Fuller Theological Seminary (2016)

“Civility in the Public Square” (with Nicholas Kristof and Tim Keller, moderated by Stephanie Summers)
Redeemer Presbyterian Church (2016)

“Confident Pluralism” (with Yuval Levin, Meira Neggaz, Garnette Cadogan, Charles Haynes, and Brett McDonnell, moderated by Laurie Goodstein)
The Newseum (2016)

“Unlawful Assembly as Social Control”
University of Minnesota School of Law (2016)

“Confident Pluralism” (with responses by Bryan McGraw, Stanley Carlson-Theis, and Anne Snyder)
Kuyper Lecture, Center for Public Justice
Baylor University (2016)

“Recent Trends in Religion, Law, and Culture”
Faith and Law (Capitol Hill) (2016)

“Confident Pluralism” (response by Peter Berger)
Gordon College (2016)

“Religious Liberty and the Expanding Circle of Civil Rights: Conflict and Accommodation”
Missouri State University (2015)

“Religious Liberty and the American Culture Wars”
Faith Angle Forum (2015)

“Confident Pluralism”
Kamm Memorial Lecture on Jurisprudence
Wheaton College (2015)

Roundtable on Confident Pluralism (with Richard Garnett, Randy Kozel, Jeff Pojanowski, Bryan McGraw, Kristen Deede Johnson, Steven Smith, Nicholas Wolterstorff, Will Baude, Patrick Deneen, Chad Flanders, and Timothy Zick)
Program on Church, State, and Society
Notre Dame Law School (2014)

“The Church’s Freedom and the Church’s Witness”
Pruis Rule of Law Lecture
Calvin College (2014)

“The Meaning of the 2014 Election” (with Kirsten Powers)
Roanoke College (2014)

“Re-Assembling Labor”
Freedom of Expression Scholars Conference
Yale Law School (2014)

“A Confident Pluralism”
Conference on Religious Accommodation in the Age of Civil Rights
Harvard Law School (2014)

“The First Amendment’s Public Forum”
Symposium on The Contemporary First Amendment: Speech, Press, and Assembly
William & Mary School of Law (2014)

“The Four Freedoms and the Future of Religious Liberty”
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (2013)

“More is More”
Annual Law and Religion Roundtable
Stanford Law School (2013)

“Groups, Pluralism, and Constitutionalism: Challenging Consensus”
Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture, University of Virginia (with commentary by Peter Berkowitz) (2013)

“The Freedom of Assembly,” United States Department of State Virtual Lecture Series (2013)

“Is the Supreme Court Threatening Religious Groups?” (debate with Nelson Tebbe)
Murphy Institute, University of St. Thomas School of Law (2013)

Symposium on Liberty’s Refuge (with Judge Janice Rogers Brown, Douglas Laycock, and David Bernstein)
American Enterprise Institute and Federalist Society (2012)

Symposium on Liberty’s Refuge (with Gregory Magarian, Susan Appleton, Robert Vischer, Ashutosh Bhagwat, Neil Richards, Bernadette Meyler, and Ian MacMullen)
Washington University School of Law (2012)

“The Limits of Integrity”
Conference on Theological Argument in the Law (conference organizer)
Duke University School of Law (2011)

“Personal Forgiveness in Transitional Justice”
Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association (2008)

Faculty workshops at Duke Law School, Notre Dame Law School, University of Missouri Law School, St. Louis University School of Law, Marquette Law School, Pepperdine Law School, Wake Forest Law School, St. Thomas (Minnesota) Law School, Denver Law School, North Carolina School of Law, the University of California (Davis) Law School, Washington University School of Law, Washington University Political Theory Workshop, Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Other conference presentations include Harvard University (2007 Graduate Conference in Political Theory); St. John’s University School of Law (2010 Religious Legal Theory Conference), Campbell Law School (2011 Symposium on “Liberalism, Constitutionalism, and Christianity”), University of Oklahoma Law School (2011 Conference on Catholic Legal Thought); Northwestern University (2011 Law and Religion Roundtable); Southeastern Association of Law Schools (2012 Panel on “Fifty Years after Engel v. Vitale”), University of San Diego School of Law (2012 Freedom of the Church Conference); Elon University School of Law (2012 Symposium on Emerging Issues in First Amendment Religious Liberty Jurisprudence); DePaul University School of Law (2013 Conference on Religious Institutionalism); University of Notre Dame (2015 Conference on Transcending Orthodoxies)

Participated as invited discussant at University of San Diego Law and Philosophy Institute (2010 Freedom of Association Roundtable); Notre Dame Law School (2011 Roundtable on Paul Horwitz’s “First Amendment Institutions”); Harvard Law School (2012 Law and Religion Roundtable); Templeton Foundation (Freedom of Assembly and Religious Liberty (2013); Washington University School of Law First Amendment Roundtable (2013, 2014); Yale Law School (2013 Free Expression Scholars Conference); University of St. Thomas Murphy Institute (2013 Roundtable on St. Thomas More); Notre Dame Law School (2013 Roundtable on Sean Coyle’s “Dimensions of Politics and English Jurisprudence”); Notre Dame Law School (2014 Roundtable on Nicholas Wolterstorff’s “The Mighty and the Almighty”); Villanova Law School (2014 Libertas Workshop on Religious Freedom)


First Year: Criminal Law (Spring 2012, Spring 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2015; Spring 2017; Spring 2019)

Upper Level: Administrative Law (Spring 2011), Religion and the Constitution (Fall 2011, Fall 2013; Spring 2016; Spring 2018)

Seminars: Religion and Liberal Democracy (Spring 2010), Law, Religion, and Politics (Fall 2011, Fall 2015), Law and Philosophy (Spring 2013), First Amendment in Schools (Fall 2013); Advanced Topics in First Amendment (Pluralism) (Fall 2016, Fall 2018)

Undergraduate: Law, Religion, and Politics (Fall 2017, Fall 2018); Religious Freedom in America (Fall 2016; Fall 2018); Major Issues in Political Theory (First Amendment) (Fall 2007, Spring 2008)


Faculty Advisory Council, Beyond Boundaries (2018 - present)

Co-Organizer, Washington University First Amendment Scholars Roundtable (2012 – 2016)

Washington University Race Institute Task Force (2016–17)

Faculty Executive Committee, Danforth Center on Religion and Politics (2011-16)

University Standing Committee on Facilitating Inclusive Classrooms (2015 – present)

Faculty advisor to Student Veterans Association (2013 – present)

Co-Organizer, Washington University Regional Junior Faculty Workshop (2012–13)

Law School Service: Curriculum Committee (2011-12); Admissions Committee (2012- 2013); Clerkship Advisor (2012–13); Student Life Committee (2013-14); First-year Orientation: Introduction to Constitutional Law (2012); Appointments Committee (2015-16; 2017-18 (chair)); Scholarship Committee (2016-17 (chair); 2018-19)


External Reviewer for Yale Law Journal, American Political Science Review, Law and Social Inquiry, Journal of Law and Religion, Yale University Press, University Press of Kansas, Cambridge University Press, and Oxford University Press

Co-Organizer, Fifth Annual Law and Religion Roundtable (2014)

Chair, AALS Section on Law and Religion (2014-15); (Program Co-Chair, 2012-13)

Organizer, Conference on Theological Argument in Law, Duke University School of Law (2011) (participants included Stanley Hauerwas, Bradley Wendel, Elizabeth Schiltz, Michael Moreland, James Logan, Paul Griffiths, David Skeel, Cathy Kaveny, Charlton Copeland, Guy-Uriel Charles, Stephen Carter, Stephen Macedo, Stanley Fish, and H. Jefferson Powell)


Advisory Board, Communities Overcoming Extremism (2018 - present)

Founder and Executive Director, The Carver Project (2017 – present)

Trustee, InterVarsity Christian Fellowship (2015 – present)

Public Humanities Scholar, St. Louis County Library (American Creed: Community Conversations) (2019)

Member, Missouri Advisory Committee, United States Commission on Civil Rights (2014-16)

Introductory Remarks, 2013 Peace Summit, Northwest Academy of Law (St. Louis) (2013)

Moderator, Washington University Veritas Forum (2013, 2014)

Committee, Urban Young Life (St. Louis) (2012–14)

Adult Education Teacher, Memorial Presbyterian Church (2011–13)

Advisor, Character and Citizenship Education Project (Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture) (2012–17)

Director of Youth Ministries, Blacknall Memorial Presbyterian Church (2006-08)


Captain, United States Air Force (2000–04)

  • Meritorious Service Medal w/ oak leaf cluster (2003, 2004)

  • Air Force General Counsel’s Honors Program (2000–04)

  • Air Force ROTC Distinguished Graduate (1997)


Colorado Bar
Missouri Bar
United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces
United States Supreme Court